pocket depth of ≥ 4 mm and bleeding on probing (BOP) were observed in 94 and 90% of sites examined, respectively. Finally, the data analyzed by SPSS to evaluate the periodontal status. If this is not so, he fails to become aroused and there is no endocrine response. Many drugs such as phenytoin, nifedipine, and cyclosporine predispose to gingival overgrowth in conjunction with microbial plaque and host response characteristics and thus may modify pre-existing periodontitis. Meanwhile, histological examination showed fewer osteoclasts in the treatment group. Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is the political, cultural, social, and economic alliance of six countries that border the Arabian/Persian Gulf – Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman. destructive periodontal disease: current concepts. 92. IV. The incidence with amlodipine is much lower; however, there have been few reports showing the association of this drug with gingival enlargement. 40, 2006, 107–119, and calculus, was correlated with attachment loss in, a group of Navajo adolescents aged 14–19. PERIODONTAL DISEASES ARE INFECTIONS, and many forms of the disease are associated with specific pathogenic bacteria which colonize the subgingival area. It is also at times difficult to be precise regarding the, causative agent in systemic exposures such as smo-, king and even pharmaceutically with prescribed drug, The possible role of systemic diseases and systemic, exposures in initiating or modifying the progress of. Clinical trials emphasize the need to, remove supra- and subgingival microbial plaque in, the treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis. Socioeconomic Status – Lack of access to care increase risk of oral disease. Moreover, puberty is often accompanied by, increased gingival inflammation and this increased, response to plaque has been attributed to the con-, centration of sex hormones in the plasma (134). Although environmental factors have been implicated as possible risk factors (Barbour et … The effect of pregnancy. Moreover, there may be acute and chronic presentations of the periodontal diseases (Petersen et al. Individuals with this disease exhibit diffuse palmar-, plantar keratosis associated with a severe generalized, periodontitis that commonly occurs before puberty, and is characterized by early loss of primary and, permanent teeth (13, 23, 28, 40, 47, 55, 148). Chronic periodontitis (CP) is one of the most common oral diseases, which is characterized by the loss of connective tissue and alveolar bone in adults. In the US, it’s estimated 70.1% of people aged 65 and older have mild, moderate or severe periodontal disease. These results suggest that comprehensive periodontal treatment in combination with treatment for diabetes mellitus can exert a positive influence on blood glucose levels and periodontal condition in diabetic patients. This phenomenon is usually a feature, of acute monocytic leukemia, although it has been, reported as a feature of other forms, including chronic, lymphocytic leukemia (136). Many genetic conditions influence the perio-, dontium during childhood and the periodontal man-, ifestations of the disease may resemble the early onset, forms of periodontitis; the effects of such diseases may, persist into adulthood. Thus the envi-, ronment influences healthy and diseased periodontal, tissues and may modify preexisting gingival inflam-, mation and result in more or less severe gingivitis, Chronic gingivitis is seen commonly in individuals, (43). Microorganisms which form dental plaque and, cause gingivitis do so by various means including the, release of bacterial products that induce tissue, inflammation. It does appear that there, is a high degree of consanguinity in these families, and that they are probably part of the same syndrome. A, study of some of the contributing factors and their validity. An animal study in sheep with estrogen, deficiency suggests that reduced estrogen levels, may influence periodontal disease progression (68), although an earlier study (90) in hamsters showed that, hormones did not influence alveolar bone loss in this, model. Stress and other psychosomatic conditions which may have direct anti-immune effects or indirect, behavior-mediated effects on the body's defenses may prove to be important in the etiology of periodontitis and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and periodontitis. Winkler JR, Murray PA, Greenspan D, Greenspan JA. Stress and, other psychosomatic conditions which may have, direct anti-immune effects or indirect, behavior-, mediated effects on the body’s defenses may prove to, be important in the etiology of periodontitis and, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and periodontitis. for several conditions, only case reports exist, whereas in other areas an extensive literature is pre-, Periodontal disease has been characterized as the, sixth complication of diabetes (88), a view supported, by several reviews which conclude that the bulk of, evidence indicates a direct relationship between. smoking), diabetes, systemic, health, and individual genetic make-up all contribute, to susceptibility. periodontal disease is clearly a complex issue. A case re-, The effect of periodontal therapy in diabetics. Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. osseous destruction as a complication of HIV-periodon-, associated with Down’s syndrome: an orthopantomo-, fects of azathioprine and cyclosporin on some gingival, health parameters of renal transplant patients. It is a serious concern for both the patient and the clinician due to its unesthetic appearance and formation of new niches for periodontopathogenic bacteria. Prevalence of gingival overgrowth induced. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1974: 183–194, 206–209. corticosteroid to acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. English language publications were included in the study. Gorlin RJ, Sedano H, Anderson VE. Occlusal forces as a risk factor : ■ In 1917 and 1926 Stillman stated that excessive occlusal forces were the primary cause of periodontal disease and the occlusal therapy was mandatory for control of periodontal disease. The use of these products with probiotics demonstrated optimistic results as an auxiliary method on the prevention and treatment of oral dysbiosis due to their direct and indirect effects against the pathogenic oral microorganisms growth and immunomodulation. Vari-, able expression of the disorder between siblings or the, impact of the environment (e.g. HIV serostatus in a cohort of homosexual and bisexual. It was further noted that smoking one cigar-, ette per day, up to 10, and up to 20, increased clinical, However, only in the last group did loss of attach-. Relationship of diabetes to, 74. One study calculated a mean annual incidence which, predicted that the entire dentition would be lost. https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/gtmb.2019.0218?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dpubmed. All ACPA+ subjects had periodontitis: 44.1% presenting moderate and 47.1% severe periodontitis. In: Newman HN, Rees TD, Kinane DF, eds. Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker commonly reported to result in drug-induced gingival overgrowth (DIGO). Kinane DF, Davies RM. Thus, although there is, evidence supporting the effects of these drugs on, gingival overgrowth, there is currently no evidence of, an association between calcium channel blockers, Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressant which acts, solely on the cell-mediated immune responses (21), and is used in post-transplant patients. the relationship between smoking and some periodontal, smoking on vascular reaction during experimental gingi-. administration of nifedipine. ical, histological and biochemical study. This report describes an association Fluctuations in gingivitis with, phases of the menstrual cycle and the effects of oral, contraceptives on the gingiva further document the. When consider-, ing changes in attachment level over time, it is also, peculiar that only relatively few sites actually undergo, extensive periodontal destruction during any given, observation period. Destructive periodontal disease is a consequence of, the interaction of genetic, environmental, host and, microbial factors (154). AZD8835 inhibits osteoclastogenesis and periodontitis-induced alveolar bone loss in rats: WANG et al. cytokine levels are increased in stressed subjects (36). Psychologically depressed human subjects who, smoked and had high titers of IgG against, were found to have more severe and extensive chro-, nic periodontitis; the authors explained this by the, negative influence of depression on the immune, system (99). 1 environmental and behavioral risk factor for periodontal disease, increasing the rate of bone resorption, chronic inflammation, and suppression of … This case-control study analyzed two promoter polymorphisms in DEFB4A with potential functional consequences in DNA samples collected from 200 unrelated individuals using Sanger sequencing. hyperplasia: case report and literature review. They clearly affect gingival overgrowth; however, the, prevalence of gingival overgrowth related to calcium, channel blockers is relatively low. Furthermore, in a group of, The mechanisms by which smoking leads to loss of, attachment are not well-understood (51).